Navajbai RatanTata Trust, Mumbai

Scheme Incharge Dr. B. Geetha
Asst.Prof (Agrl. Entomology)
Dr.P.Kohila
Mobile No. +91 9443332685
E_Mail geethaentomology@yahoo.com
Sponser NRTT
Scheme Title Dissemination of  Integrated Pest Management Technologies in Turmeric cultivation among the farmers of Salem District, Tamil Nadu
About Scheme

Objective : Dissemination of  Integrated Pest Management Technologies in Turmeric cultivation among the farmers of Salem District, Tamil Nadu

Workdone : completed sixty IPM   demonstrations IN  Turmeric  pest and disease treatment with rhizome treatment with bioagents viz., Pseudomonas and Trichoderma viride Pest and disease observation were recorded periodically

Case Study :

Background
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L), is an important commercial spice crop grown in Tamil Nadu with 36,940 ha area and production of 143,358 tonnes. Salem is the third major turmeric producing districts of Tamil Nadu. The major yield reduction factors are severe pest and disease problems which cause 60 per cent yield loss. Insect pests viz., thrips, stem borer, leaf roller and diseases viz., leaf spot, leaf blight, and rhizome rot severity affect the productivity and profitability of turmeric growers. Though several pesticides were used but failed in management of pest and diseases. Samples of turmeric leaves and rhizome were brought by the farmers frequently for problem diagnosis and advisory services to this KVK lead the steps for the permanent solution for this pest and disease problems. In this regard, focus was given on Integrated pest and disease management technologies with special emphasis of biological control methods for eco friendly and sustainable pest management. As the problem was regular and alarming in Panamarathupatti block, the farmers were selected from this cluster.  Farmers were unaware to take up the control measures at initial pest occurrence and at appropriate time. In many cases pesticide sprays failed in controlling this pest and alternative control strategies are hence needed. Hence IPM packages with bioagents were focused through demonstrations.
 Interventions
Process
          KVK has identified the turmeric clusters as panamarathupatti and the village were Sandhiyur Attayampatti, kuralnatham, thippampatti, kammalapatti and panamarathupatty of Salem district.   The identified demonstration farmers have been exposed to mass awareness campaign,meetings, hand on trainings and demonstrations on Integrated pest and disease management  technologies as well as biocontrol methods with improved cultivation technologies
Shoot borer, Conogethes punctiferalis, Rhizome scale Aspidiella hartii, leaf roller  Udaspes folus,  thrips Pancheatothrips and the diseases viz., leaf spot Colletotrichum capsici, leaf blightTaphrina maculans and rhizome rot Phythium graminicolum were found serious in reducing yield in turmeric cultivation. Use of neem cake, neem seed kernal extract, bioagents viz., parasitoids, predators, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas flourescens were focused in turmeric cultivation through these demonstrations with participatory approach. Seed treatment and soil application with Trichoderma viride is highly essential because a large number of fungal pathogens carried in the soil can be controlled.  Seed treatment is therapeutic when it kills pathogens that infect embryos, cotyledons or endosperms under the seed coat. The talc based T. viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation is used as a dry seed treatment @ 4g/kg and 10g/kg respectively and the treated seeds can be sown immediately. In Salem district, rhizome rot is the major disease in turmeric. The yield loss was up to 60% in these crops. Most of the farmers find difficult to purchase the fungicides due to high cost. Hence the effectiveness of T. viride and P.fluorescens compared to chemical fungicides was shown to the farmers through trainings and on farm trials and front line demonstrations
During the field diagnostic visits made by the scientists of KVK, Salem in the farmers fields where more than 70% of the area were under turmeric cultivation and conducted base line survey about village and the farmers behavior. Scientist from KVK, Salem conducted PRA in that village with multidisciplinary team for assessing the problem of the turmeric cultivated farmers. There we discussed about the pest and disease problems in turmeric particularly stem borer, thrips,  leaf diseases and  rhizome rot and the chemicals used for the management. They used combination of pesticides and fungicides in different stages and the cost effectiveness to control the disease. Through the KVK activities, frequent field diagnostic visits made found the  problem disease incidence was 65%, and yield level of 12-16 t/ha.). Through NRTT programme, annual work plan 2013-14, we proposed 30 demonstrations in Panamarathupatti cluster. Group discussions were made at different locations to make the farmers aware of the pest and disease management technology. Then trainings on the integrated pest disease management were given. During the field visits made by the KVK scientists hand on method demonstrations were conducted on turmeric seed rhizome treatment, soli application of bioagents and dipping with bioagents and biocontrol application at the time of earthing up stage. Extension persons were involved in trainings and the farmers were directed to follow up the technology for the forth coming season.
Objective :
To empower the knowledge, skill and capacity building on turmeric pest and disease problem diagnosis, IPM technologies through trainings, demonstrations with biocontrol agents and biopesticides and to study the impact of the IPM technologies in turmeric cultivation 
Methodology followed :
IPM models incorporating various components for the management of pests and diseases  was implemented through 30 demonstrations in 5 village clusters viz., Sandhiyur Attayampatti, Panamarathupatti, Kuralnatham, Thippampatti ans Kammalapatty for validation with farmers participatory approach mode which as essential for easy transfer of technology when it is convinced by the farmers. Farmers participatory Front line demonstrations, trainings and field days were focused to disseminate the full package turmeric  IPM technique from seed to storage level, so as to use their own rhizome as good seed material for the next crop. Biocontrol agents viz., Pseudomonas, Trichoderma, predators, biopesticide neem oil were supplied as IPM inputs in these demonstrations .
The importance of accurate identification of the pests for successful pest management programme, using of pest monitoring devices were practiced by the farmers as a participatory approach mode. Field demonstrations and dissemination of the technologies were done for adoptability, accessibility, economic feasibility and suitability for large-scale implementation.
Technology Interventions:

  • Seed Material should be selected from disease free areas.
  • Light soil may be preferred and drainage facility to be ensured.
  • In initial stage, hand picking of larvae and mechanical collection and destruction leaf feeders at regular intervals
  •  Seed rhizome treatment with bioagents (T.viride and P.flourescens)
  • Soil application of Neem cake 100 kg/ acre
  • Soil application of T.viride and P.flourescens each one kg with 100 kg FYM
  • Foliar spraying of biopesticide, neem oil for stem borer, leaf feeder and thrips management and bioagents to protect the leaf from leaf spot and leaf blotch
  • Drip fertigation of liquid pseudomonas  to protect the rhizome from rot
  • Removing of  diseased plants and drenching the soil with copper oxy chloride 3 gm/ lit of water around plants  alternated with Mancozeb (3gm/lit)

Farm advisory advices
Through farm advisory services, boicontrol agents were recommended The use of bioagentswas explained in well to the farmers during the field visits, in seminars, meetings, forum and in the field visits for  wide adoption.
Training to extension officials
Trainings on use of biocontrol agents and identification of natural enemies and differentiating between pests and disease symptoms to the extension officials in the level of ADO’s, Agricultural officers, Horticultural officers and AAOs at subsequent stages.
Training  to the farmers
One mass training programme for 100 farmers, method demonstrations the use of bioagents were given to 200 farmers. The field days were conducted to show and share the experience of the IPM technologies in the management of pests and diseases in these five villages The trainings were focused on all aspects related to ecofriendly pest management practices,
Parameters measured in relation to the technology

  • Leaf defoliation (%)
  • Rhizome damage ( % )
  • Per cent pest  disease incidence
  • yield  ( q/ha)

Result
Pest management with botanicals and rhizome treatment with IPM and bioagents,  dipping and Soil application and foliar spray with mancozeb+carbendazim resulted low pest and disease incidence and performed better.

yield parameters in Turmeric in demo and non demo plots

Yield (q /ha)

% Increase

Economics of demonstration (Rs./ha)

Economics of  check  (Rs./ha)

Demo

Check

Gross
Cost

Gross
Return

Net
Return

BCR

Gross
Cost

Gross
Return

Net
Return

BCR

H

L

A

24.2

19.8

22.0

13.6

38.18

92000

366000

274000

3.97

81400

215000

133600

2.64

pest and disease incidence in Turmeric

Technology details

Demo plot

Check

Lead folder (%)

8.2

16.8

Stem borer (%)

4

22

Leaf disease

15.5

55.5

Rhizome  damage

12.2

48.6

Substitution or replacement of technologies
Previously farmers were using combination of pesticides for pest and disease management, but now after the interventions through training on IPM, the farmers were motivated to adoption of all the IPM technologies as a package with improved cultivation technologies like polythene mulching and micronutrient spray.
Impact
Before the intervention of KVK, the farmers adopted only pesticides and their economic gains were less. They had low level of knowledge about the scientific method of  cultivation and IPM measures. But after the intervention, they were well trained in pest and disease problem diagnosis, symptom differentiation, ecofriendly and biological management practices and group marketing activities. The cost of purchase of unwanted chemicals has been reduced by which their net return also has increased to Rs.274000/ha. Further they shared their experiences on ecofriendly measures and teach the methods to other fellow farmers. Based on the technical backstopping and constant encouragement of KVK, Salem, turmeric farmers formed the growers group as part of Group dynamics and team building activities.
Feedback from the farmer :

  • Earlier due to unawareness  on the new technologies and  sprayed  pesticides fungicides combinatios  at high dose
  • Farmer reported that this IPM package performed better and easy to adopt than spraying of chemicals which cause  no toxic residue
  • Farmers were highly satisfied with these technologies due to low plant and rhizome damage  and increased yield and net income.
  • farmers are very much convinced and they in turn spread the technology to their neighbours and of late the enquiries regarding the problem have increased.

Horizontal Spread :

  • This ecofriendly management technology have been spread horizontally among the farmers of panamarathupatty block
  • Trainings on damage diagnosis, pest and disease incidence and natural enemies complex were given to take up the management practices at correct time                    
  • As farmers were unaware on the use of bioagents for pest management, initially they are reluctant in the use of these products and opted for pesticide spray. After viewing the yield increase, reduction in pest  disease population and damage level in demonstrations, other farmers are now more willing to go for adopting this IPM technology for pest and disease management
  •  About  80 per cent of the farmers accepted this technology and by viewing these demonstrations the adjacent farmers also ready for adopting IPM practices in the coming season

Economic gains
The demo. farmers have saved 2 sprays of pesticides and 3 sprays of fungicides in turmeric and got yield about  22 tonnes of turmeric on an average with net income of Rs. 2,74,000 / ha and BC ratio of  3.97
Employment generation
Trainings were given to the farmers of different villages  and nearly 175 farmers were benefited in selected areas of Salem District. As a result of this programme, some of the farmers were interested in production of biocontrol agents by their own. They need training on mass production of biocontrol agents and quality control. This creates an employment opportunity to the nearby farmers.
Substitution or replacement of commodities/technologies
Previously the farmers were used more number of pesticides for disease management and now after attending the training on biological control of disease management the farmers were motivated and adoption of all the ecofriendly methods like seed treatment, soil application, seedling dip, foliar spraying.
After the intervention of KVK, farmers shifted to using biocontrol agents. They were benefited in terms of increase in yield and income out of the KVK intervention.  The measurable results are increase in yield level and income of the farmers, their knowledge and skill on using biocontrol agents had been improved as a result of NRTT intervention. Since, pesticide usage is a major grudge to agriculture operations, the ecofriendly management technologies reduced pesticides usage resulting in less pest and disease incidence and enhanced yield and quality produces.
Achievement Motivation behavior, decision making behavior has been improved. Economic, social and environmental conditions of demonstration  farmers were improved. As a result, farmers voluntarily purchased biocontrol agents in talc and liquid formulation which is easier to apply through drip fertigation in month intervals for the coming turmeric season to further reduce the occurrence of disease, enrichment of soil with beneficial microorganisms and also to reduces the spraying of pesticides in large quantity and now they are directly approach the production centers for getting these biocontrol agents. The productivity and income was increased with less application of pesticides for managing these diseases. Now the farmers in around Salem district are also adopting the ecofriendly approach.
Earlier there was no awareness in the use of Bio control agent.  Due to the trainings on biocontrol agents the farmers and extension officials increased the use of T. viride and P.fluorescens. Farmers can able to understand the effect of the these bio control agents, realized its impact in pest and disease management fields treated with these agents after a period of 45 days, the crop exhibited a healthy growth without the signs of any pest, disease . Apart from turmeric, now the farmers are willing for IPM with biocontrol technologies for other crops viz.,onion, tomato, watermelon etc.,  By learning by doing and seeing, the farmers viewed and accepted the technology and now the adoption in use of T viride and P.fluorescens was 40 – 50 per cent in Salem district 

     
Pest problem daignosis and recommendation

IPM  Demo plot

Mixing of Trichoerma with FYM
Soil application of mixed bioagents Turmeic rhizomes harvesting by digging the  soil Separation and collection of rhizomes
Field day at Sandhiyur Attayampatti Field day at Kammalapatti Demonstration on Seed rhizome treatment

Bioagents input distribution to the demonstration farmers

NRTT Turmeric IPM -Success Farmer  Th.C. Muthukrishnan, Keerakadu, Kammalapatti