B R I N J A L
Brinjal (Solanum melongena)
Planting spreads from December – January and May – June.
Well drained soil rich in organic matter with pH of 6.5-7.5 is suitable.
100 to 120 days
- Selection of variety is an important consideration in the cultivation of brinjal as the local preference varies considerably from region to region and even district to district.
- A variety with a particular color and size of the fruit fetching premium price in the market, may be totally rejected in another area.
- Since the ultimate aim of the farmer is to get maximum return for his produce, judicious selection of the type with reference to market demands is very important in this crop
- It is a pureline selection.
- Fruits are oblong and medium sized with pale green shade under white background.
- The plants are compact and bushy.
- It has a yield potential of 20-25 tones/ha.
- The fruits are soft seeded even at full maturity.
- It was developed from the vegetable section of the then agricultural college and Research Institute, Coimbatore.
- It is preferred in the markets of southern districts of Tamil Nadu such as Tirunelveli, Ramananthapuram etc., and also Karnataka State.
- This was developed at the Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai.
- The plants are vigorous and compact. Fruits are round with large size each weighing about 200-250g., bright purple in color and have less seed content.
- As the fruit matures, the purple color fades to pale pink.
- It is a pure line selection from a local type called kallampatti.
- It has got a yield potential of 30 tones/ha, in a crop duration of 135-140 days.
- Preferred in Madurai and Trichy districts of Tamil Nadu and also in Kerala State.
- This is an aphid resistant variety developed at the department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University.
- The fruits are oblong, deep purple in colour with a characteristic yellowish mark along the calyx border and a few thorns on the calyx surface.
- This is preferred in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai and chengalpattu districts and Chennai market.
- It has a yield potential of 20-22 tones /ha.
- This variety was developed at the Department of Vegetable crops, College of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, and Coimbatore.
- It is a pure line selection from local variety called varikkathiri in the village Negamam of Pollachi taluk, Coimbatore district.
- The plants are compact with slightly oblong fruits having dark purple streaks of different lengths and widths under pale green background without spines on the calyx surface.
- It has a great preference in Coimbatore and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu.
- It yields about 35 tones/ha in crop duration of 150 days.
- It was evolved at the then Horticultural Research Station, Periyakulam of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University from a local type called Puzhuthi Kathiri through mutation breeding.
- It is adapted to rainfed cultivation in Madurai and Anna Districts.
- The fruits are small and slightly oblong ovate with green stripes.
- This is a reselection from a Nagpur ecotype developed at the vegetable Research station, Palur of TNAU in cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu.
- The fruits are small to medium in size, sometimes borne in clusters, egg shaped and with bright glossy purple colour.
- It fetches premium price in the markets of Cuddalore, Chengalpattu and chennai.
- It has got a shelf life of 8-10 days under ambient temperature.
- It yields on an average 25 tones/ha.
Pusa Purple Long
- It was developed at Indian Agricultural Research institute, New Delhi through pureline selection.
- Fruits are glossy, light purple in colour, 25-30cm long and smooth.
- It has an yield potential of 25-37 tones/ha.
Pusa Purple Round
- It was also evolved at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.
- The plants are very tall with a thick stem of greenish purple colour.
- Leaves are highly serrated and deep green in colour.
- Fruits are round with purple colour.
- Each fruit weighs on an average 130-140g.
Pusa Purple Cluster
- It is a cluster bearing type developed at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.
- Fruits are born in clusters.
- In cluster 2-3 fruits of dark purple colour, medium size fruits are present.
- Yield about 40-45tonnes/ha.
- It is a pureline selection from a coorg type developed at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore.
- Fruits are medium long and deep purple in colour with less seed.
- It yields about 39 tones/ha in 120 days.
- An extra long brinjal cultivar improved from a local type called Irangeri brinjal of Karnataka State.
- Fruits are very long, light green in colour and the yield is around 45-47 tones/ha in a crop duration of 115 days.
- It was evolved at IIHR, Bangalore.
- This is another variety developed at IIHR, Bangalore through pure line selection from a local variety in Karnataka.
- The fruits are medium long, finger shaped and pale green in colour and borne in clusters of 5-7.
- It yields about 45 tones/ha in 120 days.
- Developed at IIHR, Bangalore.
- Plants are tall and are compact.
- Fruits are short with violet blue glossy skin, green purple calyx, tender flesh having slow maturing seeds and free from bitter flesh having slow maturing seeds and free from bitter principle.
- Each fruit weighs 40g on an average and are borne in clusters in two flushes.
- Young leaves are dark green with purple leaf base and veins.
- Stem is purple green.
- This variety is resistant to bacterial wilt and has very good cooking and keeping qualities.
- It yields 40 tones/ha in crop duration of 150 days.
- It was also developed at IIHR, Bangalore.
- Plants are tall well branched and compact.
- Fruits are medium long with blue black glossy skin, green purple calyx, tender flesh with slow maturing seeds, free from bitter.
- The fruits weigh on average 43g and borne in clusters in two flushes: cooking and keeping qualities are good.
- It is also resistant to bacterial wilt.
- It yields 48.5 t/ha in crop duration of 150 days.
- It is a selection from a local collection made at Pant Nagar Agricultural University.
- Resistant to Phomopsis blight.
- It is a hybrid derivative of the cross between T3 x PPC made at Pant Nagar.
- Fruits are almost round and attractive purple in colour.
- It was developed at C.S.Azad University of Agriculture at Kalianpur, Kanpur.
- Fruits are dark purple, oblong and 15-20cm long.
- It is a variety developed at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
- Fruits are round, shining with purple colour.
- Developed at Regional Station, Katrain of IARI.
- Fruits are cylindrical, borne in clusters of 3-5.
- Average yield 37 tones/ha.
- It is resistant to bacterial wilt.
- Fruits are 15-20 cm long, dark purple with shining green calyx, less seeded.
- It yields 27 tones/ha.
- This was developed at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The palnts grow to a height of 65-70cm.
- Fruits are oblong in shape bluish purple in colour.
- It has a potential yield of 25-30 tones/ha.
- This variety was developed at the Department of Horticulture, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Hyderabad.
- Fruits are long and pale purple in colour.
- It can yield 23-25 tones/ha in a crop duration of 160-165 days.
- This variety was developed through single plant selection from a local type collected from Kulathur area at Department of Horticulture, agricultural College, Killikulam, Tirunelveli of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.
- The plants are compact bearing small sized white coloured egg shaped fruits in clusters of 2-4 with green calyx.
- The potential yield is 36 tones/ha.
- This variety has got the best preference in southern districts of Tamil Nadu.
Besides these improved varieties there are some F1 hybrids also
- It is an F1 hybrid developed at IARI., New Delhi by crossing Pusa Purple long x Hyderpur.
- It gives 80 per cent more yield than pusa purple long.
- It is an F1 Hybrid of IHR 221 x Supreme released by Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore.
- The fruits are round to slightly oval, big in size, black purple in colour each fruits weighs 400-500 g.
- It has got an yield potential of 65-75 tones/ha.
MHB - 1
- This was developed by Maharashtra Hybrid seeds company Jalna(MAHYCO).
- This is a tall erect growing hybrid.
- Fruits are long, blackish purple in colour, cylindrical in shape; spines are found on the leaves and calyx.
- It has an yield potential of 50-60 tones/ha.
- Fruits have very small quantity of seeds.
- This type of fruits are preferred in central and northern part of the country.
- This is another hybrid developed by MAHYCO, Jalna.
- Fruits are narrow, elongated in shape with very light green colour.
- It has an yield potential of 25-30 tones/ha.
- The fruits are preferred in Karnataka State.
MHB - 20 (Kalpatharu)
- Another F1 hybrid developed by Mahyco.
- The fruits are round with bright reddish purple stripes on a pale whitish green background.
- Calyx bright green with spines.
- It has a potential yield of 40-50 tones/ha.
Pusa Hybrid - 5
- Developed at IARI, New Delhi.
- The plants are vigorous, non-spiny with semi-erect branches; leaves green with bright pigmentation towards growing tips and younger leaves; fruits long, glossy, attractive dark purple with partially pigmented peduncle.
- Individual fruit weight is 100g.
- The average yield is 51.6 tone/ha.
Pusa Hybrid - 6
- Another F1 hybrid developed at IARI, New Delhi with non-spiny semi erect plants having partial pigementation on younger leaves and growing tips.
- Fruits round, glossy, attractive purple with partially pigmented peduncle.
- Single fruit weighs 250-300g.
- It takes 85-90 days from sowing to first picking.
- An early bearing hybrid which has a potential yield of 45 tones/ha.
- It was developed at C.S.Azad Agricultural University at Kaliyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh by a cross Azad B1 x Kaliyanpur Type 3 in which the prolific bearing character has been contributed by the kaliyanpur type 3 while colour, shape and fruit size by Azad B1.
- The plants are semi-erect with 60-70 cm in spread, branched, leaf lamina green and entire, early fruiting: fruits bold bright purple, round, calyx green, thin, non fleshy and penduncle green.
- The fruits retain their purple colour for a longer period and possess better shelflife.
- The average yield is 45 tones/ha.
- It is less prone to shoot and fruit borer infestation.
Hisar Shyamal (H8)
- Developed at HAU, Hisar by crossing aushye x BR 112.
- Plants are erect with purple green foliage from flowering onwards.
- Fruits round, fleshy, bright purple with dark green puple pedicel.
- This variety is resistant to bacterial wilt and tolerant to lettle leaf.
Varieties: 200 g/ha
Hybrids: 100 g/ha
Nursery area: 100 sq.m./ha.
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg of seeds or Pseudomonas fluoroscens @ 10 g/kg of seeds. Also treat the seeds with Azospirillum at 10g/100g of seeds using rice gruel as adhesive before sowing.
Apply FYM 10 kg, neem cake 1 kg, super phosphate 100 g, Furadan 10 g/ sq.m. during preparation of nursery area. In raised nursery beds sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart and cover with sand. Irrigate with rose can. Transplant the seedlings 30 – 35 days after sowing.
60 x 60 cm, for hybrids 75 x 60 (or) 75 x 75 cm.
Preparation of Field
Plough the field to a fine tilth and apply FYM 25t/ha or compost + 200 kg of neem cake at the last ploughing and form ridges and furrows at 60 cm apart.
Irrigation is done at weekly intervals.
- Brinjal being a long duration crop, requires a good amount of manures and fertilizers for high yield.
- The nutrient requirement for varieties is 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and for hybrids it is 200:75:75 kg NPK/ha.
- Fifty per cent of the N is applied along with full dose of P and K as basal dressing just before planting as noted below.
- 50 kg of Nitrogen (110 kg of Urea)/ha.
- 50 kg of Phosphorus (313 kg of Super Phosphate)/ha.
- 50 kg of Potash (80 kg of Muriate of Potash)/ha.
- Thirty days after transplanting, the remaining 50% nitrogen (N) is applied in the form of urea 110 kg, as a band application 5-10 cm away from the plants and mixed with the soil.
- Immediately, the plants are earthed up and irrigated.
- Different sources of inorganic fertilizers are indicated in Table.
- NPK at 300:50:90 Kg/ha and 75x 60cm spacing is found optimum for PLR 1 Brinjal.
- Annamalai Brinjal responding well for ratooning with yield potential of 63% of the main crop with in 100-110 days and with a fertilizer dose of 75:25:30Kg. NPK/ha plus Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each 2Kg/ha.
- Fertilizers are applied in several ways.
- Basal dressings are those fertilizers which are incorporated in the soil just before sowing or planting.
- In general half the dosage of N, full dosage of P2O5 and full dosage of K2O are applied as basal dressing in most crops.
- Top dressing are fertilizers added to the soil surface but not incorporated
- Such fertilizers must be soluble and not fixed by soil because the nutrient is carried to the roots by soil water.
- Foliar feeding is the spraying of a liquid fertilizers in suitably diluted form to be taken up through leaves.
- This technique is usually restricted to the application of micronutrients.
- Major nutrients are also supplied through foliar feeding, if deficiencies noted in the field.
- Pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha (or) Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha is recommended.
- One hand weeding is given on 30 days after transplanting followed by top dressing and earthing up is recommended.
- Spray 2 ppm (1 ml in 500 ml) Triacontanol + Sodium Borate or Borax 35 mg/lit of water 15 days after transplanting and at the time of full bloom to increase the yield.
Brinjal Mealy Bug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera)
Marks of identification
- The bugs are small, oval, soft-bodied insects measuring 3-4 mm long, covered with white mealy wax.
Nature of damage
- Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves and tender shoots.
- Heavy clustering of mealy bugs usually seen under surface of leaves as a thick mat with waxy secretion.
- They also excrete copious amount of honey dew on which the fungus sooty mould grow.
- Affected plants appear sick and black, resulting reduced fruiting capacity.
- Polyphagous, feeding on variety of plants belonging to malvaceae, solanaceae and leguminaceae.
- Females have reproductive potential of laying 200-300 eggs, majority of which are female resulting in explosive outbreak.
- Eggs are incubated beneath their body cavity for about 4-5 days.
- There are three nymphal instars which lasts for 22-25 days.
- Total life period from egg to adult is 26-30 days under normal conditions.
- Remove and burn the severely affected plants, to prevent further spread of the pest.
- Spray any one of the following insecticides at 15 days intervals Dichlorvas 75 WSC
- 1 ml/litre, Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/litre, Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/litre.
- Thorough coverage is a must.
Shoot & fruit borer
Remove the affected terminal shoot showing boreholes. Remove the affected fruits and destroy. Spray any one of the following chemicals starting from one month after planting at 15 days interval.
1. Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit + Wettable Sulphur 50% WP 2 g/lit (or)
2. Endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit + Neem oil 3 % (or)
3. Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit + Neem oil 3 % (or)
4. Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 % (or)
5. Avoid using synthetic Pyrethroid
Nematode and Damping off disease
Seed treatment with antagonistic fungi viz. Trichoderma harzianum 4 g/kg seed and T. viride 4 g/kg seed along with application of press mud at 5 kg/m2 or Carbofuran 3 G 10 g/m2. Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at the time of sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/m2 at the time of sowing to control root knot nematode and damping off disease.
Collect the beetles, grubs, pupae and destroy. Spray Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or Endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit.
Monitor the whitefly with yellow sticky trap at 12 Nos./ha. Spray Neem oil 3% + Teepol (1 ml/lit) or spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 %.
Apply Carbofuran 3 G at 15 kg/ha at 15 days after planting.
Spray Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/lit or Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit to control aphid. Release 1st instar larvae of Green lace wing bug (Chrysoperla carnea) @ 10,000 Nos./ha.
Red Spider mite
For controlling red spider mite infestation, spray Dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/lit or Wettable sulphur 50 WP 2 g/lit.
Damping Off (Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Rhizoctonia spp.) :
The disease causes severe damage in the nursery. High soil, moisture and moderate temperature along with high humidity especially in the rainy season leads to the development of the disease. Two types of symptoms are observed-
The pre-emergence damping off results in seed and seedling rot before these emerge out of the soil.
The post-emergence damping off phase is characterized by infection of the young, juvenile tissues of the collar at the ground level. The infected tissues become soft and become water soaked. The collar portion rots and ultimately the seedlings collapse and die.
Control: Healthy seed should be selected for sowing. The seed should be treated with Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed before sowing. Continuous raising of nursery in the same plot should be avoided. The top soil of nursery should be treated with Thiram @ 5g/m2 area of the soil and nursery should be drenched with the same chemical @ 2g/litre of water at fortnightly interval. Soil solarization by spreading 250 gauge polythene sheet over the bed for 30 days before sowing and application of bio-control agentTrichoderma viride in soil @ 1.2kg/ha is also found effective to control damping-off to considerable extent.
Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsis vexans) :
It is a serious disease of brinjal infecting the foliage and the fruits. The fungus infects the seedlings in the nursery causing damping off symptoms. In seedling infection, it causes damping off symptoms. When the leaves are infected small circular spots appear which become grey to brown with irregular blackish margins Lesions may also develop on petiole and stem, causing blighting of affected portion of the plant. Symptoms on the infected fruits appear as minute, sunken dull and dusky spots which later merge to form rotten areas. The flesh of severely infected fruits rots.
Control: Adopting good field sanitation, destruction of infected plant material and crop rotation help to reduce the spread of the disease. Seeds obtained from disease plants should be used for planting. Seed treatment with Thiram (2 g/kg seed) protects the seedling in the nursery stage. Spraying with Dithane Z-78 (0.2%) or Bordeaux mixture (1%) effectively controls the disease in the field.
Leaf spot (Cercospora melongenae) :
The disease symptoms are characterized by chlorotic lesion, angular to irregular in shape, later turning greyish-brown. Severely infected leaves drop off prematurely, resulting in reduced fruit yield.
Control: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%) or Chlorothalonil (2 g/litre of water) is useful for disease control.
Alternaria Leaf Spots (Altrenaria melongenae) :
The disease causes characteristic leaf spots with concentric rings. The spots are mostly irregular and coalesce to cover large areas of the leaf blade. Severely affected leaves drop off. The symptoms on the affected fruits are in the form of large deep-seated spots. The infected fruits turn yellow and drop off prematurely.
Control: Removal and destruction of affected plant parts and spraying the affected plants with Bavistin (0.1%) is useful for disease control.
Fruit Rot (Phytophthora nicotianae) :
High humidity favours the development of the disease. The symptoms first appear as small watersoaked lesions on the fruit, which later enlarges in size considerably. Skin of infected fruit turns brown and develops white cottony growth.
Control: Removal and destruction of the affected fruits and spraying the crop with Difolatan (0.3%) thrice at an interval of 10 days effectively controls the disease.
Verticillium Wilt (Verticilium dahliae) :
The disease attacks the young plants as well as mature plants. The infected young plants show dwarfing and stunting due to the shortening of the internodes. Such plants do not flower and fruit. Infection after the flowering stage results in development of distorted floral buds and fruits. The affected fruits finally drop off. The infected leaves show the presence of irregularly scattered necrotic pale yellow spots over the leaf lamina. Later on, these spots coalesce resulting in complete wilting of the leaves. The roots of the affected plants are split open longitudinally, a characteristic dark brown discoloration if the xylem vessels is observed.
Control: Crop rotation with bhendi, tomato, potato should be avoided. Soil application and foliar application with Benlate (0.1%) is effective in reducing the wilt disease.
Bacterial Wilt (Psedomonas solancearum) :
Bacterial wilt disease causes severe problem in brinjal cultivation. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are wilting of the foliage followed by collapse of the entire plant. The wilting is characterized by gradual, sometimes sudden, yellowing, withering and drying of the entire plant or some of its branches.
Control: Removal and destruction of the affected plant parts and using disease resistant varieties help to reduce the disease incidence. Crop rotation with bhendi, tomato, potato should be avoided. Before sowing the seeds should be dipped in a solution of Streptocycline (1 g/ 40 litres of water) for 30 minutes.
Little Leaf of Brinjal :
This is a serious viral disease of brinjal. The disease is transmitted by leaf hopper (Cestius (Hishimonus) phycitis and Amrasca biguttula biguttula). The leaves of the infected plants in the early stages are light yellow in colour. The leaves show a reduction in size and are malformed. Disease affected plant are generally shorter in stature bearing a large number of branches, roots and leaves than healthy plants. The petioles get shorter considerably, many buds appear in the axil of leaves and internodes get shortened thus giving the plants a bushy appearance. Flower parts are deformed leading the plants to be sterile. Infected plants do not bear any fruit. However, if any fruit is formed it becomes hard and tough and fails to mature.
Control: Adopting sanitary measures including the eradication of susceptible volunteer crop plants from a previous planting can reduce the damage. Use of barriers of trap crops and early removal and destruction of infected plants is also recommended. The sowing time can be adjusted to avoid the main flights of the beet leafhopper. Spraying Malathion (2ml/litre of water) starting with the appearance of the leaf hoppers controls their population.
This is a viral disease caused by Potato Virus Y and transmitted by aphids (Aphis gossypi and Myzuspersicae). The important symptoms of the disease are mosaic mottling of the leaves and stunting of plants. The leaves of infected plants are deformed, small and leathery. Plants show a stunted growth when infected in the early stages.
Control: The disease incidence can be minimised by reducing the population of aphids, removal and destruction of infected plants and eradication of susceptible weed hosts. In the nursery, aphids can be controlled by application of Carbofuran (1 kg a.i./ha) in the nursery bed at the time of sowing seeds followed by 2-3 foliar sprays of Phosphamidon (0.05%) at an interval of 10 days. Spraying Phosphamidon (0.05%) at 10 days interval starting from 15-20 days after transplanting effectively controls the aphids in the field.
Harvest can be done 55 - 60 days after transplanting. Fruits are harvested at tender stage at 4 - 5 days intervals.
Varieties : 25 to 30 t/ha
Hybrids : 45-50 t/ha