G R O U N D N U T

Groundnut (Arachis hyoigaea)

SEASON AND VARIETIES

A. RAINFED
1. Chithiraipattam (Apr - May)
Pollachi, Theni and Tenkasi : TMV 7, ALR 3
2. Early Adipattam (Jun - Jul)
All districts Bunch : TMV 7, CO 2, VRI 2, VRIGn 5,
Semispreading : TMV 10, COGn 5
Late Adipattam (Jul - Aug)
All districts : TMV 7, VRI 2, CO 2

B. IRRIGATED
1. Margazhipattam (Dec - Jan)
All districts : TMV 7, CO 2, CO 3, COGn 4, VRI 2, VRI 3, ALR 3, VRIGn 5
2. Masipattam (Feb - Mar)
New Delta areas of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam) : TMV 7, CO 2, VRI 2, VRI 3,
3. Chithiraipattam (Apr – May)
TMV 7, CO 2, CO 3, COGn 4, VRI 2, VRI 3

CROP MANAGEMENT

I. Rainfed

1. FIELD PREPARATION

2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil test is not done, follow the blanket recommendation. N P K - 10 : 10 : 45 kg/ha

3. FORMING BEDS
Form beds of size 10 m2 to 20 m2 depending upon the slope of the land and type of soil.
Wherever tractor is engaged, bed former may be used.

4. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
Mix 12.5 kg/ha of micronutrient mixture developed by Department of Agriculture with enough dry sand to make a total quantity of 50 kg/ha. Broadcast evenly on the soil surface immediately after sowing. Do not incorporate micronutrient mixture in to the soil.

5. NUTRITIONAL DISORDER
Zinc deficiency: Apply 25 kg ZnSO4/ha as basal.
If soil analysis shows less than 1.3 ppm of zinc, soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4 is recommended. For the standing crop, less than 39.4 ppm of zinc in leaves, foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSo4 is recommended.
Iron deficiency: spray 1% FeSo4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing.
Boron deficiency: Apply Borax 10 kg + Gypsum 400 kg/ha at 45th day after sowing.

6. SEED RATE
Use 120 kg/ha of kernels. Increase the seed rate by 15% in the case of bold seeded varieties.

7. SPACING
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm.

8. SEED TREATMENT

9. SOWING
Use Kovai seed drill/gorru to sow the seeds in lines. Put one seed in each hole. Protect the seeds from crows and squirrels.

10. INTERCROPPING

11. WEED MANAGEMENT

12. EARTHING UP

NOTE: i) Earthing up provides medium for the peg development. ii) Use the improved hoe with long handle which can be worked more efficiently in a standing position. iii) Do not disturb the soil after 45th day of sowing as it will affect pod formation adversely.

13. APPLICATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE (GYPSUM)

NOTE: Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods.

Combined nutrient spray
Pod filling is a major problem especially in the bold seed varieties. To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is to be given. This can be prepared by soaking DAP 2.5 kg, Ammonium sulphate 1 kg and borax 0.5 kg in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 32 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 468 lit of water so as to made up to 500 litre to spray for one ha. Plano fix at the rate of 350 ml. can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing.

14. HARVESTING

NOTE: Do not keep the pulled out plants in heaps when they are wet, especially the bunch varieties, as the pods will start sprouting.

II. IRRIGATED

1. FIELD PREPARATION

2. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
Apply NPK fertilizers as per soil test recommendation. If soil test is not done, follow the blanket recommendation.
N P K - 17: 34: 54 kg/ha 
Sulphur sludge - 60 kg/ha

3. FORMING BEDS
Form beds of size 10 m2 to 20 m2 depending upon the availability of water, slope of the land and type of soil. Wherever tractor is engaged, bed former may be used.

4. POLYTHENE FILM MULCHING
Spread black polythene sheet over the soil surface. Seven micron polythene film sheet @ 50 kg/ha is required. Holes can be made at required spacing before spreading of the sheets.

5. APPLICATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS

6. NUTRITIONAL DISORDER
Zinc deficiency: Apply 25 kg ZnSO4/ha as basal.
If soil analysis shows less than 1.3 ppm of zinc, soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4 is recommended. For the standing crop, less than 39.4 ppm of zinc in leaves, foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSo4 is recommended.
Iron deficiency : spray 1% FeSO4 on 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing.
Boron deficiency: Apply Borax 10 kg + Gypsum 200 kg/ha at 45th day after sowing.

7. SEED RATE
Use 125 kg/ha of kernels. Increase the seed rate by 15% in the case of bold seeded varieties.

8. SPACING
Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Wherever groundnut ring mosaic (bud necrosis) is prevalent, adopt a spacing of 15cm x 15 cm.

9. SEED TREATMENT

10. SOWING

11. WEED MANAGEMENT

12. EARTHING UP:

NOTE: i) Earthing up provides medium for the peg development. ii) Use the improved hoe with long handle which can be worked more efficiently in a standing position. iii) Do not disturb the soil after the 45th day of sowing as it will affect pod formation adversely.

13. APPLICATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE (GYPSUM)

NOTE: Application of gypsum encourages pod formation and better filling up of the pods.
Application of gypsum at the rate of 50 % basal both in rainfed and irrigated condition reduces Khadhasty malady and pod scab nematode
Combined nutrient spray
Pod filling is a major problem especially in the bold seed varieties. To improve pod filling spraying of nutrient solution is to be given. This can be prepared by soaking DAP 2.5 kg, Ammonium sulphate 1 kg and borax 0.5 kg in 37 lit of water overnight. The next day morning it can be filtered and about 32 litre of mixture can be obtained and it may be diluted with 468 lit of water so as to made up to 500 litre to spray for one ha. Plano fix at the rate of 350 ml. can also be mixed while spraying. This can be sprayed on 25th and 35th day after sowing.

14. WATER MANAGEMENT
Schedule the irrigation at 0.40 and 0.60 IW/CPE ratio during vegetative and reproductive phases respectively. Regulate irrigation according to the following growth phase of the crop.

Regulate irrigation based on physiological growth phases. Pegging, flowering and pod development phases are critical for irrigation during which period adequate soil moisture is essential. Apply irrigation as follows:

Note: Spraying 0.5% Potassium chloride during flowering and pod development stages will aid to mitigate the ill effects of water stress. Sprinkler irrigation will save water to the tune of about 30%. Borderstrip irrigation is recommended in command areas in light textured soils. Composted coir pith increases moisture availability and better drainage in heavy textured soil.

15. HARVESTING

NOTE: Do not keep the pulled out plants in heaps when they are wet, especially the bunch varieties, as the pods will start sprouting.

Average Yield: 
Bunch type: 1.5-2.0 tons of pods per hectare
Spreading type: 2-3 tons of pods per hectare

CROP PROTECTION

PEST MANAGEMENT

Red hairy caterpillar (Amsacta albistriga)

Symptoms of damage
Caterpillars cause defoliation of the crop- all the leaves eaten away leaving the main stem alone.

Management strategies

Quinalphos 1.5 D or Phosalone 4 D or Endosulfan 4 D or Carbaryl 10 D

Endosulfan 35 EC 750 ml/ha or Fenitrothion 50 EC 750 ml/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC 750 ml/ha or Dichlorvos 76 WSC 625 ml/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ha or Ethion 50 EC 500 ml/ha or Phosalone 35 EC 750 ml/ha in 375 l of water.

Tobacco cut worm (Spodoptera litura)

Symptoms of damage

Management

Leaf hopper (Empoasca kerri)

Management:

Leaf miner (Aproaerema modicella)

Symptoms of damage

Management:

Pod borer (Earwig) (Anisolabis stali)

Symptoms of damage

Management:

Millipede (Spirostreptus spp.)

DISEASE MANAGEMENT

Seed treatment Treat the seeds with any one of the following
Thiram @ 4g/Kg of seed or Mancozeb @ 4g/Kg of seed or Carboxin @ 2g/kg of seed or Carbendazim @ 2g/kg of seed. or Talc formulation of T. viride @ 4g/kg of seed or P. fluorescens @10g/kg of seed. 

Rust (Puccinia arachidis)
Symptoms

Management:
Spray any one of the following :
Mancozeb 1000g /ha or Chlorothalonil 1000g /ha or Wettable sulphur 2500g /ha or Tridemorph 500 ml/ha. If necessary, repeat the spray 15 days later.

Early leaf Spot (Cercopora arachidicola)
Late leaf Spot (Phaeoisariopsis personata)

Management:
Spray any one of the following:
Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1000 g/ha or Chlorothalonil 1000 g/ha. If necessary give the second round 15 days later.

Combined infection of rust and Leaf spot
Spray any one of the following:
Botanical /others
Spray 10% Calotropis leaf extract

Chemical
Spray Carbendazim 250 g + Mancozeb 1000g/ha
Chlorothalonil 1000g/ha. If necessary give the second round 15 days later.

Root rot (Rhizoctonia bataticola)
Biological control

Groundnut Bud Necrosis (Peanut Bud Nercrosis Virus)

Vector: Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella schultzeii

Cultural Method

Botanical/others