P A D D Y

Paddy ()

CLIMATE AND SOIL
Rice is a crop of tropical climate. However, it is also grown successfully in humid to sub-humid regions under subtropical and temperate climate. Rice is cultivated in almost all types of soils with varying productivity. Under high temperature, high humidity with sufficient rainfall and irrigation facilities, rice can be grown in any type of soil. The major soil groups where rice is grown are riverine alluvium, red-yellow, red loamy, hill and sub-montane, Terai, laterite, costal alluvium, red sandy, mixed red and black and medium and shallow black soils.

RICE SEASONS OF TAMIL NADU

Month of
sowing

Season

Duration
(Days)

Districts

Dec - Jan

Navarai

< 120

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore,
Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur,
Nagapattinam, Madurai, Theni, Salem, Namakkal,
Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore,Erode and
Pudukkottai.

Apr - May

Sornavari

<120

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore,
Villupuram, Namakkal, Dharmapuri

Apr – May
May - June

Early Kar
Kar

<120

Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Erode,
Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Salem,
Namakkal, Dharmapuri.

June - July

Kuruvai

<120

Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Thanjavur,
Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Pudukottai, Erode

July - Aug.

Early Samba

130 to 135

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Madurai, Theni,
Ramanathapuram, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode, Pudukkottai, The Nilgiris

August

Samba

130 – 135
and >150

All districts

Sep - Oct

Late Samba
Thaladi/Pishanam

130 - 135

Tiruvallur, Madurai, Theni, Coimbatore, Erode

Sep -Oct

Late Pishanam

130 - 135

Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Kanyakumari
Tirunelveli , Thoothukudi

Oct - Nov

Late Thaladi

115 -120

Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur

 

District/Season

Month

Varieties

1.Kanchipuram/Tiruvallur

Sornavari

April -May

ADT 36, IR 36, IR 50, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 17, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT43, CO 47, TRY (R)2*, ADT (R) 45, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

August

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, ADT 40, PY 4, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19, ADT(R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba

September - October

IR 20, White Ponni, ADT 39, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R)46, CORH 2

Navarai

(Dec -Jan)

ADT 36, ADT 37, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, ADT 43
MDU 5, ASD 20

Dry

July - Aug

PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM 11, PMK (R) 3, TKM (R) 12

Semi-dry

July - Aug

IR 20, TKM 10, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM 11, TKM (R) 12,PMK (R)3

2.Vellore/Tiruvannamalai

Sornavari

April-May

IR 64, ADT 36, IR 50, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18,
ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45,
ADT RH1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

Ponmani, ADT 40, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43,
Paiyur 1, PY 4, CO 45, TRY 1, ASD 19, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec -Jan

ADT 36, IR 20, ADT 39, CO 43, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18,
ADT 42, MDU 5, CO 47, ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

3. Cuddalore/ Villupuram

Sornavari

April -May

ADT 36, IR 50, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,ASD20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1,ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, PY 4, ADT 38, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec-Jan

ADT 36, IR 20, IR 36, IR 64, ADT 39, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT
42, MDU 5, ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

District/Season

Month

Varieties

4. Tiruchirappalli/Karur/Perambalur

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ADT 37, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45 (except Karur),
TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, ADT 40, Ponmani, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44

Late Samba / Thaladi

Sep -Oct

IR20, WhitePonni, ADT39, CO43, TRY1, ASD19, ADT(R)46,

Navarai

Dec -Jan

ADT36,IR 64,ASD16,ASD 18,ADT 42,MDU 5,ASD 20,TRY (R)2*

5. Thanjavur/Nagapattinam/Tiruvarur

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R)
47, ,ADT (R) 48

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, ADT 38, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba / Thaladi

Sep -Oct

ADT 38, IR 20, CO 43, Ponmani, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19,
ADT (R)46,

Navarai (Kullankar)

Dec -Jan

ADT 36, ADT 37, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

6. Pudukottai

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20,
ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, TRY 1, ASD 19,                ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

  IR 20, ADT 38, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19, CO 43, ADT (R)46

Dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, TKM 10, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

Semi-dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, TKM 10, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

7. Madurai/Dindigul/Theni

Kar

May - Jun

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 36, IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT
42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45 (Dindigul
only), TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Samba

Aug

R 20, White Ponni, CO 42, CO 43, ADT 38, ADT 40,
MDU 4, TRY 1, ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

IR 20, White Ponni, MDU 3, ADT 39, MDU 4, CO 43,
ASD 19, TRY 1, ADT (R)46

Navarai

Dec -Jan

IR 64, ADT 36, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R) 2*

Semi-dry

Jul -Aug

PMK 2, TKM 10, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

8. Ramanathapuram

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, MDU 3, ASD 19, TRY 1,
ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Rainfed & Semidry

Jul -Aug

ASD 17, ADT 36, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

9. Virudhunagar

Samba

Sep-Oct

CO 43, TRY 1, IR 20, ADT (R)46, ADT 39, CORH 2

Dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

10. Sivaganga

Semi-dry

Jul –Aug

ADT 36, IR 36, ADT 39, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12,
PMK (R) 3

11. Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi

Early Kar

Apr - May

IR 50, ADT 36, IR 64, ADT 42, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 47, ADT
(R) 47

Kar

May -Jun

ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18, ADT 42, ADT 43, CO 47,
ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

White Ponni, IR 20, ADT 39, ASD 19, TRY 1, ADT (R)46,
CORH 2

Pishanam/Late Pishanam

Sep-Oct

ASD 18, ASD 16, ASD 19, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R)46

Semi Dry

July- Aug

MDU 5, ADT 36, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

12. Kanyakumari

Kar

May –Jun

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 47, ADTRH 1, ADT(R)
47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Pishanam/ Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep – Oct

White Ponni, IR 20, Ponmani, CO 43, TRY 1, TPS 2, TPS 3,
ADT (R) 44, ADT 39, ASD 18, ASD 19, MDU 5, ADT (R) 46

Semi-dry

Jul – Aug

ADT 36, ASD 17, PMK 2, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

13. Salem, Namakkal

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ADT 36,IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD18, ADT 42, MDU
5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, Bhavani, CO 43, MDU 4, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44

Navarai

Dec - Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 18, ASD 19, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

14. Dharmapuri/ Krishnagiri

Kar

May -Jun

IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43,
ASD 18, MDU 4, ASD 19, PAIYUR 1, ADT 42, TRY 1, MDU 5,         ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADTRH 1, TRY (R)2*, ADT (R) 47

Navarai

Dec- Jan

IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ADT 36, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

Samba/       Late Samba

Aug - Oct

TRY 1, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, MDU 4, ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, ADT (R) 46

15. Coimbatore

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ADT 36, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD
20, ADT 43,CO 47,ADT (R) 45,TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT(R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, CO 43, White Ponni, ADT 39, MDU 4, TRY 1, ASD 19,
Bhavani, ADT(R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

IR 20, ADT 39, ADT(R) 46, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec -Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, TRY1, MDU 5, ASD
20, TRY (R) 2*

16. Erode

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ASD 16, IR 64, ADT 36, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD
20, ADT 43, CO, 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT
(R) 47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Samba

Aug

IR 20, Bhavani, CO 43, White Ponni, ADT 39, TRY 1, CO 46,
ADT (R) 44

Late Samba

Sep - Oct

IR 20, White Ponni, ADT 39, CO 43, TRY 1, CO 46, ADT (R)
46, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec – Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20

17. The Nilgiris

Samba

Jul -Aug

IR 20, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R) 44

SYSTEMS OF RICE CULTIVATION

SYSTEMS OF RICE CULTIVATION IN TAMIL NADU
Rice is cultivated under puddled and un-puddled lowland situations in Tamil Nadu. ‘Transplanting’ and ‘direct wet seeding’ are the two environments under puddled lowland. Whereas, unpuddled lowland cultivation undergoes different environments like, dry seeding exclusively with rainfall, locally called as ‘rainfed rice’, with supplemental irrigation during peak vegetative and reproductive phases by the rain water collected / harvested in tanks (‘semi-dry rice’) and also assured irrigation from canal after 30-45 days of dry situation (also called semi-dry rice) . They are grouped as follows:

1. Transplanted puddled lowland rice
2. Direct seeded lowland rice
    a. Wet seeded rice in puddled soil
    b. Dry seeded rice in un-puddled soil
      i) Rainfed
      ii) Semi dry - supplemental irrigation
      iii) Semi dry - canal irrigation* (contingent crop)
3. Dry seeded upland rice
    This system of rice cultivation is there in areas with high rainfall (like Assam and NE frontiers of India) where the land is sloping and terraced and there is no possibility for bunding to stagnate the water. Grain yield is poor due to loss of nutrients and soil mainly caused by water erosion. Moisture availability is mostly at saturation or at wet range. There is very limited area Dharmapuri district in Tamil Nadu.
4. Deep water rice 
    Cultivation exits in certain pockets of Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur districts. These areas are not always seen with deep water situation. Varieties suitable for that situation can yield better grain yield.

1.TRANSPLANTED PUDDLED LOWLAND RICE

Nursery management \ Wet nursery \ Nursery area
Select 20 cents (800 m2) of land area near to water source for raising seedlings for one hectare.

Seed rate

Seed treatment

Forming Seedbeds

Sowing
Sow the sprouted seeds uniformly on the seedbed, having thin film of water in the nursery.

Water Management

Weed Management
Apply any one of the pre-emergence herbicides viz., Pretilachlor + safener 0.3kg/ha, on 3rd or 4th day after sowing to control weeds in the lowland nursery. Keep a thin film of water and allow it to disappear. Avoid drainage of water. This will control germinating weeds.

Nutrient management

Dry nursery

MAIN FIELD MANAGEMENT

Land preparation

Special technologies for problem soils:

a)     For fluffy paddy soils: compact the soil by passing 400kg stone roller or oil-drum with stones inside, eight times at proper moisture level (moisture level at friable condition of soil which is approximately 13 to18%) once in three years, to prevent the sinking of draught animals and workers during puddling.
b)     For sodic soils with pH values of more than 8.5, plough at optimum moisture regime, apply gypsum at 50% gypsum requirement uniformly, impound water, provide drainage for leaching out soluble salts and apply green leaf manure at 5 t/ha, 10 to 15 days before transplanting.
Mix 37.5kg of Zinc sulphate per ha with sand to make a total quantity of 75kg and spread the mixture uniformly on the leveled field. Do not incorporate the mixture in the soil. Rice under sodic soil responds well to these practices.
c)     For saline soils with EC values of more than 4 dS/m, provide lateral and main drainage channels (60cm deep and 45cm wide), apply green leaf manure at 5 t/ha at 10 to 15 days before transplanting and 25% extra dose of nitrogen in addition to recommended P and K and ZnSo4 at 37.5 kg/ha at planting
d)     For acid soils apply lime based on the soil analysis for obtaining normal rice yields. Lime is applied 2.5t/ha before last ploughing. Apply lime at this rate to each crop up to the 5th crop.

STAND ESTABLISHMENT
Optimum age of seedlings for quick establishment
Optimum age of the seedlings is 18-22 days for short, 25-30 days for medium and 35-40 days for long duration varieties.

Pulling out the seedlings

Root dipping

Planting seedlings in the main field


Soil

Medium and low fertility

High fertility

Duration

Short

Medium

Long

Short

Medium

Long

Spacing (cm)

15x10

20x10

20x15

20x10

20x15

20x20

Hills / m2

66

50

33

50

33

25

Management of Aged seedlings*

* Which developed tillers / underwent node elongation in the nursery itself and
* About half of its leaf producing capacity may be already over.

Gap filling

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

Application of organic manures

Stubble incorporation

Biofertilizer application

Application of inorganic fertilizers

Blanket recommendation as follows:

Nutrients

N

P2O5

K2O

(kg/ha)

Short duration varieties (dry season)

a) Cauvery delta & Coimbatore tract

150

50

50

b) For other tracts

120

40

40

Medium and long duration varieties (wet season)

150

50

50

Hybrid rice

175

60

60

Low N responsive cultivars (like Improved White Ponni)

75*

50

50

*For Ponni, N should be applied in three splits at AT, PI and H stages** in addition to GLM or 
FYM application.

**Phenological stages of rice (days after sowing)

Stages

Short (105)

Medium (135)

Long (150)

Active Tillering (AT)

35-40

50-55

55-60

Panicle Initiation (PI)

45-50

70-75

85-90

Heading (H)

70-75

100-105

115-120

Split application of N and K

N management through LCC

Application of P fertilizer

Application of zinc sulphate

Application of gypsum
Apply 500 kg of gypsum/ha (as source of Ca and S nutrients) at last ploughing.

Foliar nutrition
Foliar spray of 1% urea + 2% DAP + 1% KCl at PI and 10 days later for all varieties.

Nutrient deficiency / toxicity symptoms
Nitrogen deficiency: Plants become stunted and yellow in appearance first on lower leaves. In case of severe deficiency the leaves will turn brown and die. Deficiency symptoms first appear at the leaf-tip and progress along the midrib until the entire leaf is dead.
Potassium deficiency: Bluish green leaves - when young, older leaves irregular. Chlorotic and necrotic areas - grain formation is poor - weakening of the straw which results in lodging.
Magnesium deficiency: Leaves are chlorotic with white tips.
Iron toxicity: Brown spots on the lower leaves starting from tips and proceeding to the leaf base and turns into green or orange purple leaves and spreading to the next above leaves.
Zinc deficiency: Lower leaves have chlorotic particularly towards the base. Deficient plants give a brown rusty appearance.

Neem treated urea and coal-tar treated urea
Blend the urea with crushed neem seed or neem cake 20% by weight. Powder neem cake topass through 2mm sieve before mixing with urea. Keep it overnight before use (or) urea can be mixed with gypsum in 1:3 ratios, or urea can be mixed with gypsum and neem cake at 5:4:1 ratio to increase the nitrogen use efficiency. For treating 100 kg urea, take one kg coaltar and 1.5 litres of kerosene. Melt coal-tar over a low flame and dissolve it in kerosene. Mix urea with the solution thoroughly in a plastic container, using a stick. Allow it to dry in shade on a polythene sheet. This can be stored for a month and applied basally.

WEED MANAGEMENT
Use of rotary weeder from 15 DAT at 10 days interval. It saves labour for weeding, aeratesthe soil and root zone, prolongs the root activity, and improves the grain filling though efficient translocation and ultimately the grain yield. Cultural practices like dual cropping of rice-azolla, and rice-green manure (described in wet seeded rice section 2.5 & 2.6 of this chapter) reduces the weed infestation to a greater extent. Summer ploughing and cultivation of irrigated dry crops during post-rainy periods reduces the weed infestation.

Pre-emergence herbicides

Post - emergence herbicides

WATER MANAGEMENT

Days after disappearance of ponded water at which irrigation is to be given

Soil type

Summer

Winter

Loamy

1 day

3 days

Clay

Just before/immediately after disappearance

1 - 2 days

Precautions for irrigation

HARVESTING

SEEDLING THROWING METHOD OF STAND ESTABLISHMENT

TRANSPLANTED HYBRID RICE

Seed rate

20 kg per hectare

Nursery

Basal application of DAP at 2 kg/cent of nursery area. Sparse sowing of seeds at one kg/cent of nursery area will give robust seedlings with 1-2 tillers per seedling at the time of planting. If the soil is heavy, apply 4 kg gypsum/cent of nursery area, 10 days before pulling of seedlings

Age of seedling

20 to 25 days

Spacing (cm)

20 x 10 (50 hills/m2) or 25 x 10 (40 hills/m2) according to soil fertility

Seedlings/ hill

One (along with tillers if already produced)

Fertilizer

175:60:60 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha

Other package of practices: same as in transplanted rice varieties.

INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT - RICE (SRI)

Season
Dry season with assured irrigation is more suitable.
Difficulty in crop establishment may be seen in areas with heavy downpour (NE Monsoon periods of Tamil Nadu)

Varieties
Hybrids and varieties with heavy tillering

NURSERY
Seed rate
7- 8 kg for single seedling per hill
12 -15 kg for two seedlings per hill wherever difficulty in establishment of rice is seen

Mat nursery preparation

Main field preparation

Transplanting

Irrigation management

Weed management

Nutrient management

Other package of practices as recommended to transplanted rice

CROP PROTECTION

PESTS 

1. Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis 
Symptoms of damage

Management

Phosphamidon 40 SL 50 ml
Monocrotophos 36 SL 40 ml
Endosulfan 35 EC 80 ml 

2. Green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens,
Symptom of damage

Management

3. Rice case worm, Nymphula depunctalis 
Symptom of damage

Management

4. Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas 
Symptom of damage

Management

Monocrotophos 36 SL - 1000 ml/ha or Endosulfan 35 EC -1000 ml/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC - 1000 ml/ha or Phosphamidon 40 SL - 600 ml/ha or Profenophos 50 EC -1000 ml/ha

5. Swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia
Symptom of damage

Management

Nursery

6. Gall midge, Orseolia oryzea
Symptom of damage

Management

7. Rice skipper, Pelopidas mathias
Symptom of damage

Management

8. Leaf folder (or) leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis mainsails / Marasmia patnalis
Symptom of damage

Management

9. Rice horned caterpillar, Melanitis ismene
Damage

Management

10. Grasshopper, Hieroglyphus banian Short horned grasshopper, Oxya nitidula 
Symptom of damage

Management