T O M A T O

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

Climate and soil
The crop is grown from almost MSL to an altitude of 1500 m in tropical and subtropical regions, with an annual rainfall of 60-150 cm. Very high rainfall during its growth is harmful. When grown under hot weather, it is cultivated as an irrigated crop. The winter crop is planted from August to September. For organic farming of tomato winter crop has been found to be ideal.
Well drained sandy loam soil with high level of organic contents is best suitable for tomato cultivation. Soils with high acidity are not suitable for tomato cultivation. Three to 4 q of suitable lime can be applied in the field in an interval of three years to reduce the level of acidity to tolerable limits. There is a need to go for soil testing at the beginning of the crop season.

Land preparation
The land may be ploughed and harrowed 3 or 4 times to obtain a fine tilth. About 10 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) or vermi compost/compost @ 1-1.5 t per acre is applied at the last ploughing. Green manuring is recommended for areas with assured rainfall and also for irrigated crop. Beds are prepared against the slope and after levelling the bed, field channels of 50 cm breadth are prepared at intervals of 1 m.

Varieties 
Sioux

Pusa Red Plum

Pusa Early Dwarf

Pusa Ruby

Co-1

CO 2

CO 3 (Marutham)

S-12

Punjab Chhuhara

PKM 1

Pusa Ruby

Paiyur-1

Arka Saurabh

Arka Vikas

Arka Ahuti (Sel.11)

Arka Ashish (IHR 674 SBSB)

Arka Abha (BWR-1)

Arka Alok (BWR-5)

Shakthi

HS101

HS102

HS110

Hisar Arun (Sel-7)

Hisar Lalima (Sel-18)

Hisar Lalit (NRT 8)

Hisar Anmol (H24)

KS.2

SL 120

Pusa Gaurav

S 12

Pant Bahar (AC 238)

Pant T3

Narendra Tomato 1 (NDT 5)

Narendra Tomato 2 (NDT 120)

Solan Gola

Arka Meghali

PKM 1, CO 3 (Marutham) and Paiyur 1, Arka Abhijit, Arka Abha, Arka Ananya, Arka Alok, Arka Shreshta, Arka vardan, Arka Vishal, Arka Vikas, Arka Saurab, Arka Meghali and Arka Ahuti are some of the popular varieties. 

Season of sowing 
Planting is done during May - June and November – December

Seed rate
About 400g of seeds is required for a hectare.

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g or Carbendazim 2 g per kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing. Just before sowing, treat the seeds with 40 g of Azospirillum.

Nursery preparation
Apply FYM 10 kg, Neem cake 1 kg, VAM 50 g, Super phosphate 100 g and Furadon 10 g per square metre during the nursery area preparation. Sow the seeds in lines at 10 cm apart in raised seed nursery beds and cover with sand. Irrigation is done using rose can and the seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.

Preparation of field
Plough the land to a fine tilth. Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium mixed with 100 kg FYM before planting and form ridges and furrows. Form ridges and furrows and transplant 25 days old seedlings on one side of the ridges. 

Application of fertilizer 
Apply FYM 25 t/ha, N 75 kg, P 100 kg, K 50 kg, Borax 10 kg and Zinc sulphate 50 kg/ha as basal dose and 75 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting during earthing up. Spray 1.25 ppm (1.25 mg in one lit) Triacontanol, 30 days after transplanting and at full bloom stage to increase the yield.

Weed control 
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergent herbicide followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.

Yield 
PKM 1  : 30-35 t/ha
CO 3    : 40 t/ha
Paiyur  : 30 t/ha

HYBRID TOMATO
Varieties 
COTH 1 and COTH 2

Season 
Planting is done during May – June and November – December

Seed Rate 
About 150 g of seeds are required for a hectare

Seed Treatment 
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing and with Azospirillum @ 20 g/150 g just before sowing.

Nursery preparation 
The seedlings are raised under 50% shade net nursery unit. Seeds can be sown in 0.8 mm thick protrays (98 cells) filled with 1.25 kg composted coir pith. The seeds are sown @ one seed per cell and kept in the raised beds. The seedlings are transplanted 25 days after sowing.

Field preparation and planting 
Prepare the field with the addition of FYM @ 25 t/ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm. Apply each 2 kg/ha (10 packets) of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM. Irrigate the furrows and transplant the seedlings, with the ball of earth, on the ridges adopting a spacing of 45 cm between the plants.

Manuring
Basal Dose : NPK - 50:300:50 kg/ha
Top dressing: N and K each 150 kg/ha in 3 equal splits at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting.

Irrigation 
Irrigate the field on the third day of planting and subsequently at weekly intervals.

Weed control 
Apply Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i./ha or Fluchloralin 1 kg a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after planting. Mulching with black Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) sheets of 25 micron thickness by burying both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm will avoid weed growth.

After cultivation

Harvest: Harvest the fruits when they turn red.
Duration: 110 - 115 days from transplanting (135 - 140 days from sowing).
Yield : Average yield is 80-90 t/ha

PLANT PROTECTION

PESTS

Fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura) 
Management:

For Helicoverpa armigera: Helicoverpa armigeraNuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (H.a.NPV) 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha
For Spodoptera litura: Spodoptera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (S.l. NPV )1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha5. 
Provide poison bait with Carbaryl 1.25 kg, rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg and water 7.5 lit/ha.

Serpentine leaf miner

Whitefly

Nematode
Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 g/sq.m at sowing and 1 kg a.i./ha in the main field one week after transplanting. Treat the seeds with antagonistic fungi Trichoderma viride or T. harzianum at 4 g/ha seed along with pressmud at 5 kg/m2 or Carbofuran 3G at 10 g/m2 to control rootknot nematode.

DISEASES 
Damping off (nursery)
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM. Water stagnation should be avoided. Drench with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g/lit at 4 lit/sq.m.

Leaf spot 
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Zineb or Mancozeb 2 g/lit.

Leaf curl 
Spray systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Monocrotophos or Dimethoate at 2 ml/lit. to kill the insect vector (whitefly).

Tomato spotted wilt disease 
Apply Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg. a.i./ha in nursery at sowing and second application at 1.25 kg a.i./ha 10 days after transplanting in mainfield and 3 sprays of Endosulphan 35 EC 1.5 ml/lit @ 25, 40, 55 days after transplanting.