T U R M E R I C

Turmeric ()

Varieties
More than 50 cultivars of C. domestica and C.aromatica are known and these are known by trade names based on the appearance, rhizome thickness, colour intensity, aroma and hardness of the core and duration.

Different variety of turmeric and its yield level

Name

Mean yield (fresh) t/ha

Crop duration (days)

Dry recovery (%)

Curcumin 
(%)

Oleoresin 
(%)

Essential
Oil (%)

Suvarna

17.4

200

20.0

4.3

13.5

7.0

Suguna

29.3

190

12.0

7.3

13.5

6.0

Sudarsana

28.8

190

12.0

5.3

15.0

7.0

IISR Prabha

37.5

195

19.5

6.5

15.0

6.5

IISR Prathibha

39.1

188

18.5

6.2

16.2

6.2

Co-1

30.0

285

19.5

3.2

6.7

3.2

Krishna

9.2

240

16.4

2.8

3.8

2.0

Sugandham

15.0

210

23.3

3.1

11.0

2.7

BSR-1

30.7

285

20.5

4.2

4.0

3.7

Roma

20.7

250

31.0

9.3

13.2

4.2

Suroma

20.0

255

26.0

9.3

13.1

4.4

Rajendra Sonia

4.8

225

18.0

8.4

-

5.0

Ranga

29.0

250

24.8

6.3

13.5

4.4

Rasmi

31.3

240

23.0

6.4

13.4

4.4


http://www.icexindia.com/profiles/turmeric_profile.pdf

Cultivars of Tamil Nadu
In Tamil Nadu, two cultivars viz., Erode local and Salem local have been cultivated so far in addition to local cultivar viz., Bhavani.

Salem local

Erode local

Turmeric varieties released from TNAU

Other varieties grown in Tamilnadu

Improved turmeric varieties of Tamil Nadu

CO 1

BSR 1

BSR 2

Soil and climate

Season

Land preparation

Seed rhizome selection

Seed materials

Seed rate

Mother Rhizomes

2000-2500 kg/ha as a sole crop

Primary fingers

1500-2000 kg/ha as a sole crop

Fruit gardens

400-500 kg/ha as a inter crop

Seed TreatmentRhizomes dipped in Emison -6 (Methoxy ethyl mercuric chloride) solution or chlorpyriphos before planting to prevent rhizome rot and scale insects respectively. - Some of the farmers follow dipping the rhizomes in 0.1% Carbendazim 1g/l, and Monocrotophos 1.5 ml/l to control rhizome rot and scales.

Planting

Method of planting

Spacing

Black heavy soils

45-60 cm X 22.5 cm

Red loamy soils

30 X 15 cm

Orissa

22.5 X 22.5

Manures and manuring

Basal

Top dressing 

Time of application

N

P

K

(kg/ha)

Basal dressing

25

60

18

Top dressing

At 30 Days after planting

25

25

18

At 60 Days after planting

25

25

18

At 90 Days after planting

25

25

18

At 120 Days after planting

25

25

18

Top Dressing under drip system of irrigation

Micronutrient application

Systems of Cultivation

Two systems of cultivation are followed in different areas

Bed system (Raised or flat)

Ridge and furrow method

Inter Cultivation
Onion, Coriander and Fenugreek can be planted as intercrop on the sides of the ridges 10 cm apart (250 kg seed Onion/ha). Redgram and Castor can also be planted at wider spacing. Weeding can be done as and when necessary. The plants are earthed up at the time of 2nd and 4th top dressings.
Some of them follow maize as inter crop at the spacing of 45 x 10 cm . Chilli also planted in some of the fields as inter crop. For shade regulation, Sesbania species is sown. 

Rotation And Mixed Cropping

PLANT PROTECTION

Pre planting treatment
The seed rhizomes are dipped in Carbendazim 1 g/lit and Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC 1.5 ml/lit for controlling rhizome rot and scales

PESTS

Thrips
Thrips can be controlled by spraying Dimethoate 30 EC or Methyl demeton 25 EC 2 ml/litre.

Shoot borer
The shoot borer is the most serious pest of turmeric. The larvae bore into pseudo stems and feed on internal tissues. The presence of a bore-hole on the pseudo stem through which frass is extruded and the withered central shoot is a characteristic symptom of pest infestation. The adult is a medium sized moth with a wingspan of about 20 mm; the wings are orange yellow with minute black spots. Fully-grown larvae are light brown with sparse hairs. Spraying malathion at the rate of 2.5ml per litre of water or Dichlorovos at the rate of 2 ml per litre of water at 21 day intervals during July to October is effective in controlling the pest infestation. The spraying has to be initiated when the first symptom of pest attack is seen on the inner most leaf.

Rhizome scale
The rhizome scale infests rhizomes in the field (at later stages of the crop) and in storage. Adult (female) scales are circular (about 1mm diameter) and light brown to grey and appear as encrustations on the rhizomes. They feed on sap and when the rhizomes are severely infested, they become shrivelled and desiccated affecting its germination. Treat seed material with quinalphos by dissolving 7.5ml in 10 litres of water (for 20-30 minutes) before storage and also before sowing in case the infestation persists. Discard and do not store severely infested rhizomes. Rhizome scale can be controlled by applying well rotten sheep manure @ 10 t/ha in two splits (once basally and other at earthing up) or Poultry manure in 2 splits followed by drenching Dimethoate 30 EC 2 ml/lit or Phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha.

Nematode
Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) are the two important nematodes causing damage to turmeric. Wherever, nematode problems are common, use only healthy, nematode free planting material. Increasing the organic content of the soil also checks the multiplication of nematodes. Avoid planting turmeric after Banana or other solanaceous vegetables. Planting is done only after taking suitable control measures. Apply Carbofuran 4 kg a.i./ha twice on the third and fifth month after planting the rhizomes.

DISEASES

Rhizome rot
The disease is caused by Pythium graminicolum or P.aphanidermatum. The collar region of the pseudostem becomes soft and water soaked, resulting in collapse of the plant and decay of rhizomes. Rhizome rot can be controlled by drenching with Bordeaux mixture 1 % or Copper oxychloride 0.25 %. Treat the seed rhizomes with 0.3% Copper oxychloride for 30 min before storage.

Leaf spot
Leaf spot is caused by Colletotrichum capsici and appears as brown spots of various sizes on the upper surface of the young leaves. The spots are irregular in shape and white or grey in the centre. Later, two or more spots may coalesce and form an irregular patch covering almost the whole leaf. The affected leaves eventually dry up. The rhizomes do not develop well. Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Carbendazim 500 g/ha or Mancozeb 1 kg/ha or Copper oxychloride 1.25 kg/ha.

Leaf blotch
Leaf blotch is caused by Taphrina maculans and appears as small,oval, rectangular or irregular brown spots on either side of the leaves which soon become dirty yellow or dark brown. The leaves also turn yellow. In severe cases the plants present a scorched appearance and the rhizome yield is reduced. The disease can be controlled by spraying mancozeb in the proportion of 3gm per litre of water or combination of Carbendazim and Mancozeb in the ratio of 3gm in 1 litre of water .

Harvest
The plants will start lodging in about nine months. Yellowing and drying of leaves are the signs of crop maturity. The rhizomes are picked after digging deeply with mammuttis or digging forks. Harvested rhizomes were separated as fingers and mother rhizomes to enable easy boiling and grading.

Preservation of seed rhizomes
Rhizomes for seed purpose are generally stored by heaping in well ventilated rooms and covered with turmeric leaves. The seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits with saw dust, sand along with leaves of Strychnos nuxvomica (kanjiram). The pits are to be covered with wooden planks with one or two openings for aeration. The rhizomes are to be dipped in quinalphos 7.5ml in 10 litres of water solution for 15 minutes if scale infestations are observed and in mancozeb 35gm in 10 litres of water to avoid storage losses due to fungi.

Yield
Fresh rhizomes : 25-30 t/ha
Cured rhizomes : 5-6 t/ha

Post harvest treatment

Cleaning of rhizomes
Finger rhizomes are separated from mother rhizomes for perfect boiling, since the mother rhizomes are bigger in size they take more time to boil.

Boiling of turmeric rhizomes
Fresh turmeric is cured for obtaining dry turmeric. The fingers are separated from mother rhizomes. Mother rhizomes are usually kept as seed material. Curing involves boiling of fresh rhizomes in water and cow dung slurry. 
In the traditional method of curing, the cleaned rhizomes are boiled in water just enough to immerse them. Boiling is stopped when froth comes out and white fumes appear giving out a typical odour. The boiling should last for 15-20 minutes when the rhizomes turn soft. The stage at which boiling is stopped largely influences the colour and aroma of the final product. Over cooking spoils the colour of the final product while under-cooking renders the dried product brittle.
The cooked fingers are taken out of the pan by lifting the trough and draining the water into the pan. The water used for boiling turmeric rhizomes can be used for curing fresh samples. The processing of turmeric is to be done 2 or 3days after harvesting. If there is delay in processing, the rhizomes should be stored under shade or covered with sawdust or coir dust. 

Boiling of rhizomes through Steam boiler 
In addition to the conventional method of boiling, now a day’s steam boiler method is followed by some of the farmers. The rhizomes were boiled in the steamer and then spread in the yard for drying.
Benefits of steam boiler: Enable uniform cooking of rhizomes - Saving the fuel and time, since this method boils higher quantity of rhizomes

Drying
The cooked fingers are dried in the sun by spreading them in5-7 cm thick l />ayers on the drying floor. A thinner layer is not desirable, as the colour of the dried product may be adversely affected. During night time, the rhizomes should be heaped or covered with material which provides aeration. It may take 10-15 days for the rhizomes to become completely dry.

Polishing
Dried turmeric has a poor appearance and a rough dull outer surface with scales and root bits. The appearance is improved by smoothening and polishing the outer surface by mechanical rubbing. Mechanical rubbing is by using a power operated barrel or drum mounted on a central axis, the sides of which are made of expanded metal mesh. When the drum filled with turmeric is rotated, polishing is effected by abrasion of the surface against the mesh as well as by mutual rubbing against each other as they roll inside the drum. The yield of polished turmeric from the raw material varies from 15-25%.
The colour of the processed turmeric influences the price of the produce. For an attractive product, turmeric powder (mixed with little water) may be sprinkled during the last phase of polishing.

Selling
Processed rhizomes are filled in the sacs and sold in regulatory markets situated at Erode through auction method of selling.